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LITERARY    LIFE                        24!

which comes from love, as sharp as a lover's eyes, and as un-
failing and correct as a mother's intuition. This Einfuhlung,
this sharing of human emotions with the universe, this poetic
transformation of dead objects which makes the moss "mount"
one's doorstep and the colour of grass "enter" one's window-
screen, this poetic illusion, for illusion it is, is felt so intuitively
and so constantly that it seems to constitute the very essence of
Chinese poetry. An analogy ceases to be an analogy, but
becomes a poetic truth. A man must be indeed more or less
intoxicated with nature to write the following lines (by Ch'en
Ngo) about the lotus flower, suggestive of Heine:

Lightly dips her green bonnet,
When a zephyr past her has blown;
Red and naked she shows herself,
When she is sure of being alone.

This review of the two sides of the poetic technique, regard-
ing its treatment of scenery (ching] and emotion (ch'ing), en-
ables us to understand the spirit of Chinese poetry and its
cultural value to the nation. This cultural value is twofold,
corresponding to the broad classification of Chinese poetry
into the two types: (i) haofang poetry, or poetry of romantic
abandonment, carefree, given to a life of emotion, and express-
ing a revolt against the restraints of society and teaching a
profound love of nature, and (2) wanyiieh poetry, or poetry of
artistic restraint, tender, resigned, sad and yet without anger,
teaching a lesson of contentment and the love of one's fellow-
men, especially the poor and down-trodden, and inculcating a
hatred of war.

Among the first type may be classified Gh'u Yuan (343-290
B.C.), the pastoral poets like T'ao Yuanming, Hsieh Lmgyiin,
Wang Wei, Meng Haojan (689740), the crazy monk Hanshan
(around the year 900), while nearer Tu Fu are Tu Mu (803
852), Po Chuyi, Yuan Chen (779-831) and the greatest
poetess of China, Li Ch'ingchao (1081-1141?). No strict
classification is, of course, possible, but there was a third group
of sentimental poets, like Li Ho (Li Ch'angchi, 790-^816), LI
Shangyin (813-858) and his contemporary Wen T*iogyun,